Dental Standards of Care Committee, May 2016
Oral health care is a critical component of comprehensive HIV medical management. Development of oral pathology is frequently associated with an underlying progression of HIV-disease status. A thorough soft-tissue examination may reveal pathology associated with dysphagia or odynophagia. Dental problems can result in or exacerbate nutritional problems. In addition, psychosocial and quality-of-life issues frequently are associated with the condition of the oral cavity and the dentition.
Medications and oral health: Many of the medications taken by patients with HIV have side effects that may manifest in the oral cavity. Potential side effects include the following:
- Candidal growth: Antibiotics may cause or exacerbate
- Xerostomia: Antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and anticholinergic agents
- Increased risk of dental caries: Clotrimazole troches and nystatin suspension pastilles (contain sugar)
- Gingival hyperplasia: Phenytoin
- Oral ulcers: Zalcitabine (DDC)