Selected Resources

For Care Providers


AIDS Education Training Center (AETC):

Northeast/Caribbean AETC

Resource Library Salzburg Statement on Shared Decision Making

New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH):

Behavioral Health Education Initiative

CEI: HIV, HCV & STD Clinical Education Initiative

NYS AIDS Institute Training Center

Opioid Overdose Prevention Program

Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services

Office of Mental Health

Rape Crisis and Sexual Violence Prevention Program

Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE) Program



American Medical Directors Association: Dementia in the Long-Term Care Setting

American Psychiatric Association

Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, third edition

Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia

Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement: Depression, Adult in Primary Care

US. Preventive Services Task Force: Depression in Adults: Screening



New York State (NYS): Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence


HIPAA Information Center

HIV Testing

Rape Crisis and Sexual Violence Prevention Program

Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE) Program



National Alliance on Mental Illness New York State

National Institutes of Health (NIH):

NYC Health:

Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH)

Life Net: 1-800-543-3638

Public Health Solutions-HIV Care Services

New York eHealth Collaborative: NYEC


Department of Education-Office of the Professions

Office of Mental Health

Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence

Office of Victim Services


Directory of ESAP Providers in New York State

Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP): Overview of Law and Regulations

HIV Testing

NYS Opioid Overdose Prevention Program

Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services

Office of Mental Health

Rape Crisis and Sexual Violence Prevention Program

Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE) Program



AIDSinfo: Drug Database

HIV Clinical Resource 

Mental Health Screening: Quick Ref Guide

Substance Use Screening: Quick Ref Guide

NYSDOH: CEI: HIV, HCV & STD Clinical Education Initiative

University of Liverpool: HIV Drug Interactions

UCSF HIV InSite: Database of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions


U.S. Government 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Center for Mental Health Services

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

Learn the Link: Drugs and HIV

National Institute of Mental Health

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Registry for Evidence Based Programs and Practices


Mental Health Screening Tools

BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory): Patient-administered; 21 items; 5 minutes

BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory-II) [a]: Patient-administered; 21 items; 10 minutes

  • The most widely accepted measure of depressive distress.
  • Originally developed for use as a measure of symptom severity in psychiatric patients, it has also been used in numerous studies of depression in medically ill patients [1].

BSI 18 (Brief Symptom Inventory 18): Patient-administered; 18 items, 4 minutes

  • Screens for depression, anxiety, Somatization
  • For patients >18 years of age.

CDQ (Client Diagnostic Questionnaire): Trained assistant-administered; 15-20 minutes

  • Screens for: depression,  anxiety, PTSD, psychosis, alcohol and substance use, general health worries

CESD-R (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised) [a]: Patient-administered; 20 items

  • Originally designed for use in nonpsychiatric community samples. It may be the most widely used screening instrument in North America.
  • It has also been used extensively in medically ill samples, with evidence of good psychometric properties.
  • Studies support the value of CES in the medically ill, although the positive predictive value has been relatively low in some studies, and a lack of consensus remains about the optimal cutoff score [1].

DRS-2 (Dementia Rating Scale-2): Patient-administered; 14 items

  • Screens for depression, anxiety
  • Specifically designed for use in the medically ill.
  • A lack of consensus exists about the utility of the HADS and about the optimal cutoff scores to screen for major and minor depression [1].

HAM-D/HDI (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression): Clinician-administered; 21 items

  • Screens for: Depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, insomnia, diminished appetite, weight loss, obsessive compulsive behavior
  • Widely used in psychiatric research.
  • High reliability and validity for diagnosing and monitoring clinical depression.

HANDS (Harvard Dept. of Psychiatry, NDSD Scale): Patient or clinician-administered; 10 items

  • Screens for depression
  • Other tools available

HDS (HIV Dementia Scale): 4 areas (16 points)

  • Timed written alphabet, recall, cube copy time, antisaccadic error task
  • Most users choose the shortened version (MHDS; described below), deleting the antisaccadic error task, which is difficult to administer and score.

IHDS (International HIV Dementia Scale): Clinician-administered; 3 areas (12 points)

  • Can be administered by non-neurologists
  • May detect early motor and cognitive slowing [2].

Mental Alternation Test: Clinician-administered

  • Screens for HIV-associated dementia
  • Patients with early dementia usually will show impairments in timed trials, such as this test [1].

MHDS (Modified HIV Dementia Scale): Clinician-administered; 4 areas (12 points); 5-7 minutes

  • Memory-registration, psychomotor speed, memory-recall, constructional
  • Omits the antisaccadic item in the HDS (described above).

MMSE (Mini-Mental State Exam): Interviewer-administered; 11 items

  • Screens for cognitive status/ability
  • This is the most widely used and tested brief battery for cortical impairment, but has lower sensitivity with signs of subcortical impairment, such as slowing and motor abnormalities.

PHQ-2 (Patient Health Questionnaire-2): Patient- or assistant-administered; 2 items

  • Screens for depression
  • A  PHQ-2 score of 3 or greater was found to have a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 92% for major depression in a sample of primary care and OB-GYN clinic patients [1].

PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) [a]: Patient- or assistant-administered; 9 items

  • Screens for depression
  • Specifically designed for the primary care setting, it has been studied in thousands of primary care and medical specialty outpatients.
  • Spanish version has also been validated [1].

 PHQ-15 (Patient Health Questionnaire-15): Patient- or assistant-administered; 15 items

  •  Somatic symptom severity scale
  •  Details symptoms that account for 90% of somatic symptoms encountered in the primary care setting [1].

PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders): Patient- or assistant-administered; 3 pages; 5 minutes

  • Screens for depression, anxiety, alcohol, eating disorders

SAMISS (Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener) [b]: Administered by trained assistant; 13 items

  •  Designed to detect symptoms of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders [3].

ZUNG (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale): Patient-administered; 20 items

  • Screens for depression, insomnia, diminished appetite, weight loss, diminished self-esteem, suicidal ideation, anhedonia


  1. Any of these instruments (CESD-R, HADS, PHQ-9, BDI-II) may be acceptable to screen for depression in the medically ill, although the evidence for the utility of the HADS is less strong than for the CES and BDI-II. The PHQ has better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS. The cutoff score used on any of these instruments should depend on the purpose of screening and resources for follow up [1]
  2. For other alcohol- and substance use-related screening tools, see the substance use clinical Screening and Ongoing Assessment Guideline.
  1. Levenson JL, ed. Textbook of Psychosomatic Medicine. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2005.
  2. Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:721-728. [PubMed]
  3. Whetten K, Reif S, Swartz M, et al. A brief mental health and substance abuse screener for persons with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2005;19:89-99. [PubMed]

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening

June 2012

Download PDF

Download PDFIntroduction: People with HIV are more likely to experience mental health symptoms than those in the general population [1]. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and cognitive impairment are among the most common disorders. Risk for suicide or violence may be present. Any sudden change in cognitive function, consciousness, or behavior should prompt immediate assessment for delirium caused by an acute medical complication.

The complexity of mental health diagnosis and treatment in the setting of HIV often requires a collaborative approach between primary care and mental health providers. (Mental health providers include psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, and psychiatric nurse practitioners.)

Screening: For most patients, mental health screening requires approximately 10-20 minutes.

  • All HIV-infected patients should receive baseline and ongoing assessment of the following:
    • Mental health disorders: depression (every visit); anxiety (at least annually); PTSD (at least annually)
    • Cognitive function (at least annually)
    • Sleep habits and appetite (every visit)
    • Psychosocial status (at least annually)
    • Suicidal/violent ideation (every visit)
    • Alcohol and substance use (at least annually; at-risk drug and alcohol users should be screened more frequently to identify escalation of present levels of use or harmful consequences from use)

Referral: Refer to a mental health provider when a patient presents with:

  • Risk for violence to self or others (see algorithm)
  • Psychosis, including delusions, hallucinations, flight of ideas, disordered thinking
  • Poor response or relapse of psychiatric symptoms while receiving medication/treatment
  • Active substance abuse or relapse to substance use with mental health disorder (Refer to a program for dually diagnosed patients.)

Successful mental health referral involves communication between medical and mental health providers, as well as patient education. 

  1. Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:721-728.

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Depression, Anxiety, and PTSD

June 2012

Assessment: A brief screening tool, such as the PHQ-2, may be used for routine depression screening. For annual mental health screening, an answer of “yes” to any one of the following questions from the SAMISS questionnaire [1] should prompt further evaluation by a member of the healthcare team and, if necessary, referral to a mental health provider. For the PHQ-2 and other screening tools, see Mental Health Screening Tools.

Questions to identify depression:

  • In the past year, were you ever on medication or antidepressants for depression or nerve problems?
  • In the past year, was there ever a time when you felt sad, blue, or depressed for more than 2 weeks in a row?
  • In the past year, was there ever a time lasting more than 2 weeks when you lost interest in most things like hobbies, work, or activities that usually give you pleasure?

Questions to identify anxiety:

  • In the past year, did you ever have a period lasting more than 1 month when most of the time you felt worried and anxious?
  • In the past year, did you have a spell or an attack when all of a sudden you felt frightened, anxious, or very uneasy when most people would not be afraid or anxious?
  • In the past year, did you ever have a spell or an attack when for no reason your heart suddenly started to race, you felt faint, or you couldn’t catch your breath?

Questions to identify post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD):

  • During your lifetime, as a child, or adult, have you experienced or witnessed traumatic event(s) that involved harm to yourself or to others?
    • If “yes”: In the past year, have you been troubled by flashbacks, nightmares, or thoughts of the trauma?
  • In the past 3 months, have you experienced any event(s) or received information that was so upsetting it affected how you cope with everyday life?

Question to identify mania:

  • In the past year, when not high or intoxicated, did you ever feel extremely energetic or irritable and more talkative than usual?
  1. Pence BW, et al. Validation of a brief screening instrument for substance abuse and mental illness in HIV-positive patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;40:434-444.

Questions have been reprinted by permission of Wolters Kluwer Health.

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Cognitive Function

Routine screening: Clinicians should routinely assess kidney function in all HIV-infected patients. A renal assessment should include:

  • Glomerular filtration rate estimated from serum creatinine (baseline and at least every 6 months) (AII)
  • Blood urea nitrogen (baseline and at least every 6 months) (AIII)
  • Urinalysis, total protein, and albumin (baseline and at least annually) (AIII)
  • For patients with diabetes and no known proteinuria: calculation of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to detect microalbuminuria (baseline and at least annually) (AI)
  • For patients receiving a tenofovir-containing regimen, clinicians should estimate glomerular filtration rate at initiation of therapy, 1 month after initiation of therapy, and at least every 4 months thereafter.

Diagnosis and evaluation: All patients with borderline glomerular filtration rate, regardless of age, should undergo the following diagnostic evaluation of kidney function (AII):

  • Urinalysis to screen for cells and cellular casts
  • Quantification of urinary protein excretion
  • Renal sonogram
  • Careful physical examination
  • Primary care clinicians should refer patients to a nephrologist when (AII):
    • The diagnosis is uncertain
    • Kidney disease is progressing rapidly
    • Stage 4 to 5 chronic kidney disease is present
    • Kidney biopsy is being considered

Management: In circumstances when a kidney biopsy is not performed for an HIV-infected patient with kidney dysfunction, because of contraindication, clinician judgment, or patient preference, the following diagnostic criteria for HIV-associated nephropathy are reasonable (BIII): No other explainable cause(s) of kidney disease and proteinuria of >2000 mg and normal to large echogenic kidneys on sonogram and black race

  • For patients with empirically diagnosed HIV-associated nephropathy whose kidney disease worsens after initiation of ART, a biopsy should be performed to determine the underlying cause. (AIII)
  • Patients with low-grade proteinuria and/or slightly decreased glomerular filtration rate should receive ART if not already receiving it, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, and careful monitoring of kidney function.
  • Clinicians should consult with a nephrologist when managing patients who are approaching end-stage renal disease due to stage 4 to 5 chronic kidney disease (see the table stages of chronic kidney disease) and require special interventions for hyperparathyroidism, anemia, hemodialysis vascular access, peritoneal dialysis, and/or kidney transplant options. (AII)
  • Clinicians should educate patients with HIV-associated nephropathy about the increased urgency of initiating ART. (AII)
  • Clinicians should treat hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, anemia, and hypertension in HIV-infected patients with kidney disease according to standard guidelines for non-HIV-infected patients. (AI)
  • HIV-infected normotensive patients with kidney disease should receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers according to standard guidelines for non-HIV-infected patients. (AI)
  • Clinicians should refer HIV-infected patients with kidney disease to a nephrologist when:
    • Considering management with steroids, immunosuppression, hemodialysis, or transplantation (AIII)
    • A diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis has been made for HIV/HCV co-infected patients (AIII)

Medication adjustments: Clinicians should determine whether dose adjustments are required for certain antiretroviral agents or whether patients should avoid use of certain agents when glomerular filtration rate reaches ≤50 mL/min; see the DHHS guideline, Antiretroviral Dosing Recommendations in Patients with Renal or Hepatic Insufficiency for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Appendix B. (AIII)

  • For patients receiving tenofovir-containing regimens, clinicians should:
    • Estimate glomerular filtration rate at initiation of therapy, 1 month after initiation of therapy, and at least every 4 months thereafter (BII)
    • Adjust tenofovir dosing when glomerular filtration rate approaches 50 mL/min or discontinue tenofovir according to clinical status (AII)
    • Withhold tenofovir until all potential causes have been determined in patients who develop acute renal failure (BII)
  • Clinicians should assess for use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in HIV-infected patients with declining renal function. Decisions about the use of such agents for these patients should be individualized and patients should be educated about the importance of using these drugs with caution. (BII)

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Sleep and Appetite

June 2012

Insomnia occurs frequently in HIV-infected patients and during all stages of HIV disease [1], and weight loss is a strong predictor of HIV disease progression [2].

Additional resources:

  1. Reid S, Dwyer J. Psychosom Med 2005;67:260-269.
  2. Colecraft E. Proc Nutr Soc 2008;67:109-113.

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Substance Use Screening

June 2012

A positive screen with any one of the following tools indicates the need for additional evaluation. Many more tools are available. For additional information, see Screening and Ongoing Assessment.

Single Alcohol Screening Question

“How many times in the past year have you had x or more drinks in 1 day?”

Where x = 4 for women and x = 5 for men, and one or more heavy drinking days in the past year is considered a positive screen.

Reprinted from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician’s Guide, 2005.

The Two-Item Conjoint Screen (TICS)

In the last year, have you ever drunk or used drugs more than you meant to?

Have you felt you wanted or needed to cut down on your drinking or drug use in the last year?

Where ≥1 positive may be suggestive of a problem.

Reproduced by permission of the American Board of Family Medicine. Brown RL, Leonard T, Saunders LA, et al. A two-item conjoint screen for alcohol and other drug problems. J Am Board Fam Pract 2001;14:95-106. Copyright © 2001, JABFM Online by American Board of Family Medicine.

CAGE-AID (CAGE-Adapted to Include Drugs)

Have you ever felt the need to cut down on your use of alcohol or drugs?

Has anyone annoyed you by criticizing your use of alcohol or drugs?

Have you ever felt guilty because of something you’ve done while drinking or using drugs?

Have you ever taken a drink or used drugs to steady your nerves or get over a hangover (eye-opener)?

Where a total of ≥2 may be suggestive of a problem.

Reproduced by permission of the Wisconsin Medical Society; cited from Brown RL, Rounds LA. Conjoint screening questionnaires for alcohol and other drug abuse: Criterion validity in primary care practice. Wisconsin Medical Journal 1995;94:135-140.

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Click to enlarge

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: HIV-Related Triggers of Mental Distress

June 2012

Clinicians should be aware of triggers that can cause mental distress, such as:

  • Learning of HIV status and disclosure to sex partners, family, and friends
  • Physical illness, diagnosis of an STI, introduction of ART medications, AIDS diagnosis
  • Hospitalization (particularly first hospitalization)
  • Life changes (death of a significant other, end of relationship, job loss)
  • Necessity of making end-of-life permanency-planning decisions

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Elements of Psychosocial Assessment

June 2012

The following assessment may help determine the need for additional support:

  • Stability of housing,* employment, government assistance, and level of education
  • Support network and safety:
    • Does the patient have contact with family and friends? …Are they aware of the patient’s HIV status?
    • Does the patient have a partner?…Is the patient afraid of his/her partner or someone else close?
  • Legal issues, including end-of-life arrangements

*Contact information, housing, and support network should be closely monitored for patients with unstable living situations.

Quick Reference Guide to Mental Health Screening: Prescribing Considerations

June 2012

Use of full prescribing information, knowledge of drug-drug interactions, and patient education are important components of effective psychopharmacologic treatment. Consultation with a psychiatrist experienced in HIV treatment may be warranted. Consultation for providers in New York State can be obtained at Columbia University HIV Mental Health Training Project: HIV Mental Health Warmline (1-212-543-5413).

Insomnia Screening (Quick Reference Guide)

Mental Health Guidelines Committee, April 2013

Download PDF
Download PDF

Insomnia occurs frequently in HIV-infected patients and during all stages of HIV disease [1]. Although insomnia is not unique to the HIV-infected population, insomnia screening should be part of routine HIV care due to the potentially negative effects of insomnia on health, including HIV disease progression.

What is insomnia? Difficulty falling asleep; frequent awakenings during sleep; early morning awakening; or non-restorative sleep despite adequate sleep duration

Possible causes: 1) Major life events, such as the death of a loved one; 2) Changes in sleeping environment (e.g., when in the hospital); 3) Physical and mental health disorders; 4) Prescription or OTC medication use; 5) Use or relapse of use of alcohol or other substances [2-4]

Possible consequences of insomnia: Fatigue, irritability, elevated blood pressure, excessive daytime sleepiness; non-adherence to ART [5]; increase in pain symptoms and worsening of physical health conditions [6]; relapse of psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, mania).

  • Clinicians should ask patients at routine monitoring visits about sleep quality and difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep.
  • When an HIV-infected patient reports insomnia, primary care clinicians should:
    • Assess the patient’s sleep patterns, as well as perform a differential diagnosis, to clarify the nature of the patient’s insomnia
    • Exclude and manage causes of secondary insomnia
    • When possible, refer the patient at least once for evaluation by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist
    • Discuss sleep hygiene with the patient and consider nonpharmacologic approaches for treating insomnia before prescribing medications
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Click to enlarge

Sleep assessment evaluation checklist for clinicians: Suggest the patient keep a sleep log, which could include the following:

  • Events prior to bedtime, including emotional stressors and the consumption of alcohol or caffeine-containing beverages
  • Time spent awake in bed before falling asleep
  • Number, time, and length of awakenings
  • Final time of morning awakening
  • Time spent awake in bed before rising
  • Frequency and duration of naps during the day
  • Patient or bed partner observations of snoring, interrupted breathing, abnormal leg movements

Differential Diagnosis

Substance use etiologies: Caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, illicit drug use (particularly stimulants) 

  • Alcohol may help induce sleep, but its use is associated with sleep disruptions)

Mental health etiologies (the most common contributor to insomnia is the presence of a mental health disorder [7]):

  • Depression and anxiety disorders
  • Severe psychiatric disorders, including mania and psychosis
  • Side effects of psychotropic medications, including selective seratonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Medical conditions:

  • Pain
  • Respiratory: dyspnea and sleep apnea
  • Gastrointestinal: gastroesophageal reflux
  • Endocrinologic: hyperthyroidism, menopause
  • Neurologic: cognitive impairment, neuropathy, periodic limb movements in sleep or restless limb syndrome
  • Cardiopulmonary: lung disease, congestive heart failure
  • Nephrologic/urologic: chronic kidney disease, frequent urination and incontinence


  • ART medications (e.g., efavirenz, lamivudine)
  • β-blockers
  • Bronchodilators
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Corticosteroids
  • Decongestants
  • Immunomodulators (e.g., interferons, interleukin-2)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfa
  • Dapsone
  • Amphotericin
  • Fluconazole
  • Isoniazid
  • Diuretics taken at bedtime

Sleep Hygiene Strategies

Encourage the following “To Do’s”:

  • Take warm baths before bed
  • Exercise for at least 30 min/day most days of the week
  • Maintain a bedtime routine (e.g., going to bed and waking up at a set time)
  • Make bedroom cool, dark, and quiet
  • Place the clock out of sight
  • If unable to fall asleep after 20 minutes, leave bed and do something relaxing (e.g., reading); return to bed later

Discourage the following “Don’ts”:

  • Consuming caffeine (coffee, tea, chocolate, soda), alcohol, or nicotine before bedtime
  • Eating a large meal just before bedtime
  • Napping during the day
  • Exercising within 2 hours of bedtime
  • Working, eating, reading, or watching television in bed. 

Cognitive behavioral strategies: Referral to a sleep specialist to assist patients with cognitive-behavioral techniques may benefit some individuals with insomnia. Techniques include: cognitive therapy, relaxation training, sleep restriction, and phototherapy.

Pharmacologic strategies: 

  • Assess for patient use of OTC agents for insomnia and offer to prescribe an FDA-approved agent as a better option (e.g., offer ramelteon instead of OTC melatonin)
  • Avoid prescribing medications for sleep disturbance that have narrow therapeutic ranges and potential for abuse (e.g., barbiturates, choral hydrate, and meprobamate)
  • Limit to 1 week the use of antihistamines for promoting sleep in order to avoid worsening of symptoms due to long-term use
  • Advise patients of the potential side effects of melatonin-agonist therapy, including OTC preparations, particularly severe hypersensitivity reactions
  • Do not prescribe tricyclic antidepressants to patients with cardiac conduction problems; although some clinicians prescribe these agents for insomnia, most are not FDA-approved for this purpose

Checklist of questions when selecting a pharmacologic agent for insomnia:

  • Will this agent improve symptoms that may be contributing to the patient’s insomnia (e.g., depression, anxiety, neuropathic pain, etc.)?
  • Will this agent pose risks to the patient based on comorbid medical conditions?
  • Will this agent pose risks based on interactions with other medications, (e.g., zolpidem, zaleplon, and eszopiclone should be used with caution in patients taking protease inhibitors)?
  • Is this the optimal agent for a patient with a current or pasthistory of alcohol or sedative abuse/dependence?
  • Can the patient afford the prescribed medication?

Agents with an FDA-approved indication for insomnia:

  • Antihistamines: Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, hydroxyzine
  • Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics: Zolpidem, zolpidem-CR, zaleplon, eszopiclone
  • Melatonin agonist: Ramelteon
  • Antidepressants: Trazodone, doxepin
  • Benzodiazepine hypnotics: Flurazepam, quazepam, estazolam, triazolam, temazepam, lorazepam
  1. Reid S, et al. Psychosom Med 2005;67:260-269.
  2. Feige B, et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007;31:19-27.
  3. Brower KJ. Sleep Med Rev 2003;7:523–539.
  4. Mahfoud Y, et al. Psychiatry 2009;6:38-42.
  5. Ammassari A, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;28:445-449.
  6. Ancoli-Israel S. Am J Manag Care 2006;12(8 Suppl):S221-S229.
  7. Reid S, et al. Psychosom Med 2005;67:260-269.